Cutaneous neurofibromas are also called discrete or dermal neurofibromas. These tumors grow from small nerves in the skin or just under the skin and appear as small bumps typically beginning around the time of puberty. Cutaneous neurofibromas rarely cause medical problems but may itch or be tender when bumped. It is important to note that these tumors remain benign throughout life and do not become malignant cancers. Despite their benign nature, they may cause significant cosmetic problems and occasionally may require removal. These lesions can be removed by single or multiple sitting using Co2 laser.
Trichilemmoma is a benign cutaneous neoplasm that shows differentiation toward cells of theouter root sheath. They may appear as a solitary or multiple lesions, and are usually found on the head and face. These lesions can be removed using Co2 laser in a single sitting.
A sebaceous cyst is a closed sac under the skin filled with a cheese-like or oily material. Sebaceous cysts most often arise from swollen hair follicles. Skin trauma can also cause a cyst to form. A sac of cells is created into which a protein called keratin is secreted. These can be removed through a micro punch hole using Co2 laser and evacuation of sebum and sac in a single session.
Angiokeratoma is a benign cutaneous lesion of capillaries, resulting in small marks of red to blue color and characterized by hyperkeratosis. These lesions can effectively treated by long pulsed Nd YAG laser machine.
Syringomas are benign tumors of eccrine origin commonly found around (usually below) the eyes . Eccrine simply means sweat glands and the sweat glands around the eyes are the common sites of transformation into syringoma. These can be removed by co2 laser in a single or multiple sitting.
A capillary hemangioma (“strawberry” birthmark) is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor consisting of an abnormal overgrowth of tiny blood vessels. Capillary hemangiomasmay not be present at birth, but appear within the first 6 months of life. They usually begin to decrease in size between 12 and 15 months of age. Some are gone by the age of 2, about 60% by 5 years, and 90–95% by 9 years. These lesions can treat by long pulsed Nd YAG laser with multiple sitting
Tuberous sclerosis is Facial angiofibromas (“adenoma sebaceum”): A rash of reddish spots or bumps, which appears on the nose and cheeks in a butterfly distribution, they consist of blood vessels and fibrous tissue. This potentially socially embarrassing rash starts to appear during childhood and can be removed using Co2 laser treatment.
Fordyce spots: They appear as small, painless, raised, pale, red or white spots or bumps 1 to 3 mm in diameter that may appear on the scrotum, shaft of the penis or on the labia, as well as the inner surface (retromolar mucosa) and vermilion border of the lips of the face. These can be removed in one sitting using Co2 laser.
Rhinophyma is a condition causing development of a large, bulbous, ruddy nose associated with granulomatous infiltration, commonly due to untreated rosacea. Rhinophyma is characterised by prominent pores and a fibrous thickening of the nose, sometimes with papules. It can carry a strong psychological impact due to its effect on one’s personal appearance. Treatment consists of paring down the bulk of the tissue with carbon dioxide laser and allowing the area to re-epithelialise.
Milia also called a milk spot or an oil seed, is a clog of the eccrine sweat gland. It is a keratin-filled cyst that can appear just under the epidermis or on the roof of the mouth. They are usually found around the nose and eyes, and sometimes on the genitalia, often mistaken by those affected as warts or other sexually transmitted diseases. Milia can also be confused with stubborn whiteheads. These can be removed using Co2 laser.
Pearly Penile Papules (PPP)
Pearly Penile Papules; also known as Hirsutoid Papillomas are small, skin-coloured uniform, dome-shaped smooth bumps that form one or two rows around the base of the penis. They are seen in 8 to 43 percent of men and usually appear after puberty. They are harmless and will tend to fade in appearance as you age.
It is more common in men who have not been circumcised. However, they can appear on any male. Once they develop, they don’t spread or change much in size or shape. They are neither contagious nor painful. There is no association between PPP and sexually transmitted infections, and though no intervention is medically necessary, treatments are available for Hirsutoid Papilloma. These lesions can be removed using a CO2 laser in a single session.
Steatocystoma multiplex is a disorder of the pilosebaceous unit that occurs in either a sporadic or an autosomal dominant manner. Numerous hamartomatous malformations of the pilosebaceous duct junction (hair follicle unit) develop at puberty.
If a single cyst of this type is found, it is called Steatocystoma Simplex. Lesions usually appear in adolescence or early adulthood, when sebaceous activity is at its peak. Both males and females may be affected. The cysts of steatocystoma multiplex most often arise on the chest and may also occur on the abdomen, upper arms, armpits and face. In some cases, cysts may develop all over the body.
Localized, generalized, facial, acral, and suppurative types of steatocystoma multiplex have been described. Isolated steatocystoma of the vulva and scrotum can develop late in life as a sporadic condition not inherited.
The cysts are mostly small (2-20 mm) but may be several centimetres long. They tend to be soft to firm semi-
translucent bumps, and contain an oily, yellow liquid. Sometimes a small central punctum can be identified, and it may contain one or more hairs (eruptive vellus hair cysts).
These cysts can be removed using CO 2 laser in a single session.
Corns and Calluses
Corns and calluses are thick, hardened layers of skin that develop when the skin tries to protect itself against friction or pressure.
They often form on feet and toes or hands and fingers. Corns are smaller and deeper than calluses and have a hard center surrounded by swollen skin. They can be painful when pressed. Hard corns often form on the top of the toes or the outer edge of the small toe. Soft corns tend to form between the toes.
Calluses are rarely painful and tend to develop on pressure spots, such as the heels, the balls of the feet, the palms and the knees. They may vary in size and shape and are often larger than corns.
Corns can become very painful or inflamed, and can easily be removed in a single session by CO2 laser.